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18.06.2013, ResponsAbility

Mobilfunktechnologie verleiht Mikrofinanz Auftrieb

copyright responsAbility
Mikrofinanz in Ostafrika ist von der raschen Expansion des filiallosen Bankgeschäfts geprägt, in besonderem Mass vom mobilen Geld sowie technologischen Innovationen aus Nairobi. Eine von responsAbility Research verfasste Studie beleuchtet die Entwicklung des Finanzmarktes in drei ostafrikanischen Ländern unter diesen Vorzeichen.

Ostafrika ist in den letzten Jahren zum Treibhaus für Innovationen bei Finanzdienstleistungen geworden. Auf Mobilfunktechnologie gestützte Angebote erlauben es, den unteren Einkommenssegmenten in bisher ungekanntem Ausmass Zugang zu Finanzdienstleistungen zu verschaffen. Einerseits helfen die Innovationen, mit der immensen Nachfrage nach Krediten, Sparmöglichkeiten und Geldüberweisungen in Afrika Schritt zu halten. Andererseits können dank der Technologie mehr Dienstleistungen für mehr Menschen zu einem günstigeren Preis erbracht werden, wodurch sich auch das Marktpotenzial von Mikrofinanz erhöht.

Die rasch fortschreitende Entwicklung von Mikrofinanz in Ostafrika ist ein überzeugender Hinweis dafür, dass dieser Markt in Schwellenländern weiterhin eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Die Finanzsektorentwicklung mit Mikrofinanz als zentralem Element verfolgt das Ziel, eine Vielzahl von Finanzdienstleistern zu schaffen, die sich um Kunden aus den unteren Einkommensschichten bemühen. Gleichzeitig fördert Mikrofinanz das Wachstum von selbstständigen Unternehmern und Kleinunternehmen und nimmt sich einkommensschwacher Haushalte an.

Geldtransaktionen via Mobiltelefon
Kenia etwa zählt 30 Millionen Mobilfunkabonnemente. Die Mobiltelefongebühren gehören zu den günstigsten weltweit. Bereits 73% der erwachsenen Kenianer nutzen mobiles Geld, 23% davon mindestens einmal täglich. Somit ermöglicht die Technologie Millionen einkommensschwacher Haushalte, ihr Privat- und Geschäftsleben genauso effektiv und flexibel zu organisieren wie wohlhabendere Haushalte.

M-PESA, der weltweit am meisten genutzte Service für mobile Geldtransaktionen, wurde 2007 vom kenianischen Telekommunikationsanbieter Safaricom lanciert. M-PESA ist ein Geldüberweisungssystem, das es den Benutzern ermöglicht, Bargeld gegen die Währung von M-PESA umzutauschen. Diese wird direkt an andere Benutzer von M-PESA weitergeleitet, die sie wiederum in Bargeld umtauschen. M-PESA hat über 10 Millionen Kunden. Für Ein- und Auszahlungen stehen dem System 50’000 Vertragsagenten zur Verfügung. Im Vergleich dazu gibt es in Kenia rund 500 Bankfilialen, 500 Postbank-Filialen und ungefähr 500 Geldautomaten.

Weltweites Interesse an neuen Technologien
Das macht deutlich, weshalb M-PESA Aufsehen erregt. Der Transaktionsservice zeichnet sich durch Geschwindigkeit, Sicherheit, Zuverlässigkeit und Volumen aus. M-PESA ist tief in den Markt der herkömmlichen Geldüberweisungsanbieter wie Western Union und MoneyGram vorgestossen.

Mobiles Geld und die technologischen Entwicklungen aus Nairobi sind in den Medien auf der ganzen Welt auf grosses Interesse gestossen. In den vergangenen zehn Jahren hat Ostafrika mit handfesten Innovationen deutlich gemacht, dass der Kontinent mehr Chancen bietet, als man sich je hätte vorstellen können.

Die komplette Studie Die Mikrofinanzrevolution in Ostafrika finden Sie unter www.responsAbility.com/Microfinance.

****
Rechtlicher Hinweis
Dieses Dokument wurde von der responsAbility Social Investments AG (nachfolgend „responsAbility“) erstellt. Die in diesem Dokument enthaltenen Informationen (nachfolgend „Informationen“) basieren auf Quellen, die als verlässlich betrachtet werden, jedoch besteht keine Garantie hinsichtlich Richtigkeit und Vollständigkeit derselben. Die Informationen könnten jederzeit geändert werden, ohne dass eine Verpflichtung besteht, den Empfänger darüber zu informieren. Ist nichts anderes vermerkt, sind alle Zahlen ungeprüft und nicht garantiert. Sämtliche Handlungen aufgrund der Informationen erfolgen auf eigene Haftung und Gefahr des Empfängers. Das Dokument dient ausschliesslich Informationszwecken. Die Informationen entbinden den Empfänger nicht von seiner eigenen Beurteilung. © Copyright responsAbility Social Investments AG, 2013. Alle Rechte vorbehalten.

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